The most popular view on the development of green

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With the rapid development of the global economy and the continuous improvement of human living standards, the destruction and pollution of the environment by solid waste and the waste of earth resources are one of the major environmental problems facing the international community today. The United Nations Environment Programme has listed the treatment of solid waste as a major global environmental issue. Packaging waste is an important part of solid waste. People are more and more aware of its harm to the environment, so green packaging has become the research and development direction of packaging industry

in addition, with the improvement of human awareness of environmental protection, the thinking mode, values and consumption concept also change with the development of the times. In trade and trade exchanges, people pay more attention to product environmental standards when purchasing goods, resulting in green vegetables, green diet, green cars, green refrigerators, green clothing, green packaging and so on. It can be said that with the development of the world economic integration process, green products will go deep into every link of all walks of life in the 21st century. People's requirements for environmental protection and improving their own quality of life are further improved. Green products must be equipped with appropriate green packaging to truly form a complete green commodity

in addition, with the development of industrial modernization and mankind's excessive grabbing of the earth's resources, the global environment is deteriorating day by day. In order to protect land resources, human environmental quality and their own economic interests, various countries and regions have successively formulated a series of environmental treaties and agreements. According to the investigation of the WTO, 5 materials of artificiallacrimalductantears show that there are more than 150 multilateral environmental agreements in the world, a considerable part of which contain trade provisions, and the WTO has also established a trade and Environment Committee to deal with issues related to trade and environment. It can be said that environmental protection will become the main issue of international economic and trade cooperation in the 21st century, so the development of green packaging will become increasingly important

II. Basic connotation of green packaging

under the important task of reducing resource waste and protecting the environment, the packaging industry must establish innovative ideas and strengthen environmental awareness. When studying new packaging materials and technologies, designing new packaging products and formulating new standards and regulations, we should focus on the development of green packaging that reduces resource consumption and waste discharge, is easy to recycle and can be degraded by itself

therefore, green packaging is also called environmental protection packaging. It not only plays the traditional functions of preservation, protection, indicating the information of contents, easy identification and promotion, but also has the following three functions: (1) the core of packaging in economic development; (2) Packaging is responsible for environmental protection; (3) The innovation of packaging in improving living conditions (quoted from W. C. ferram's the present and future of packaging). In 1996, the ipc`96 international packaging academic conference determined the 3R principles for packaging waste treatment, namely reduce, reuse and recycle. Specifically, it is explained as (1) reducing the use quantity and material consumption of packaging; (2) When the technical and economic conditions permit, the reusable packaging shall be given priority; (3) Develop recyclable packaging, recycling treatment methods do not pollute the environment, but also renewable other energy

according to the 3R principle of packaging waste treatment, green packaging generally should have the following aspects:

(1) under the condition of ensuring the packaging function, it is a kind of appropriate packaging with the least materials and waste

(2) the packaging production process does not or rarely pollutes the environment

(3) the packaged products do not react directly or indirectly with the contents, and are harmless to human body and biology

(4) packaging waste should be easy to recycle and reuse, and can be quickly degraded without pollution when buried. When burned, it can generate new energy without polluting the environment

in a word, from the perspective of system theory, green packaging is a systematic project, which includes knowledge of packaging containers, packaging materials, packaging techniques, production processes and waste treatment technologies. It is a new development of packaging discipline. The research on green packaging requires continuous innovation, the development of new energy-saving and environment-friendly materials, the improvement of the testing level for evaluating the performance of packaging materials and the establishment of corresponding standardized work procedures. At the same time, packaging machinery must be upgraded. Packaging design and printing decoration should contain more abundant information and characteristics of the times. In addition, the corresponding regulations and technical definitions of green packaging and the education and training on the characterization of metal mechanical properties of talents will involve all aspects and links. Therefore, only by paying attention to and seriously developing the system engineering of green packaging, can we realize the green connotation represented by green packaging and continue to develop in international economic and trade exchanges

III. green packaging and international trade

1 Green packaging has increasingly become a new non-tariff barrier green barrier since the 1990s, trade barriers have undergone important changes. Developed countries have developed a series of new standards to restrict the import of foreign products and services for the purpose of paying attention to technological innovation and environmental protection in order to protect limited resources, environment and human health. Relevant WTO agreements stipulate that no country shall be prevented from taking necessary measures to protect human and biological life and health and protect the environment. However, this provides a basis for developed countries to build green barriers. At present, there are mainly "environmental trade barriers" and "health quarantine barriers". In 1998, the European Union unilaterally banned the entry of wooden packing boxes and wooden pallets that had not been subject to health quarantine in China. China's economic and trade losses alone amounted to hundreds of billions. In 2000, Fanhou announced that wooden packing cases and wooden pallets imported from China, Canada, Southeast Asia and the United States must be fumigated and sterilized. Developed countries set the standard of green packaging too high and too strict in order to raise the "threshold" to prevent developing countries' high-quality and low-cost goods from entering the domestic market, so as to offset the advantages of developing countries and protect their economic interests

2000, the European Union took greater action on environmental trade barriers, requiring the recovery rate of household appliances, electronic products and communication supplies to be more than 60%, and the recovery rate of individual products to be as high as 75%, including 85% of packaging products. This provision will be formally implemented in January2006. Therefore, in recent years, more and more trade frictions have been caused by packaging problems. For example, China's disposable tableware has been banned from exporting to the European and American markets because of the absence of "environmental labels", and many goods exported to Europe and America have to pay high packaging waste treatment fees. With China's entry into WTO, the impact of foreign green barriers on China's export trade will become more severe. Therefore, domestic enterprises must improve their awareness of environmental protection, pay close attention to the study of foreign laws and regulations on green barriers, and formulate corresponding countermeasures in combination with our reality

2. Environmental labeling system and international environmental management standard - ISO 14000

environmental labeling, also known as green labeling, means that government departments or public organizations issue certificates to enterprises according to certain environmental standards to prove that the production, use and treatment process of their products meet environmental protection requirements, are harmless or extremely harmful to the environment, and are conducive to resource recycling

there are three types of environmental signs: type I, type II and type III. Type I environmental signs are eco-environmental signs. According to the changes of national conditions, type I signs also have different standards. Type II signs are information signs of the nature of "enterprise declaration". Enterprises and institutions formulate specific environmental protection methods according to their own characteristics, and make them public to the public in the form of signs. Type III mark is a product quality mark, which indicates the environmental characteristics of enterprises and institutions' products in the form of specific data. China, Japan and other countries adopt type I logo, while the United States, the European Union and other countries mostly adopt type III logo. Since Germany first introduced this system in 1978, more than 40 countries (mostly developed countries) and regions have implemented this system. Since its implementation in 1994, China has issued several batches of products and enterprises that have obtained environmental labels

if a product or an enterprise obtains the environmental label, it is equivalent to obtaining the "pass" to enter the national market where the environmental label system is implemented. Otherwise, the market competitiveness of the product will be seriously reduced. The environmental label is increasingly becoming a symbol for enterprises to improve efficiency and establish image

international environmental management standard - ISO 14000 is a standard formulated by the Environmental Management Technical Committee of the national organization for Standardization (ISO). The ISO 14000 series includes 100 standards, including ISO 14001 (environmental management system - Guidelines and use specifications), ISO 14004 (environmental management system - principles, systems and use specifications), It is divided into the following six subsystems:

environmental management system

evaluation of enterprise environmental behavior

environmental audit and supervision

iso14000 series

life cycle assessment

evaluation of product environmental labels

environmental guidelines in product standards

international environmental management standard ISO 14000 series aims to standardize the environmental behavior of enterprises, institutions and social organizations, reduce environmental damage caused by production activities, Save resources to the greatest extent, improve environmental quality, coordinate environmental protection with economic development, and realize sustainable development. The basic contents of ISO 14000 audit and certification are as follows: (1) the enterprise establishes an environmental management system; (2) The enterprise has good environmental protection status and performance; (3) The production activities of the enterprise comply with environmental protection laws and regulations; (4) The enterprise has complete environmental reports, etc. In addition to following the general quality management system principles, ISO 14000 series pays more attention to the protection of environmental quality, such as 1% to 5% of modern enterprises; Then, only by attaching importance to product quality and establishing an environmental management system can we adapt to the rapid development of market economy. Passing ISO 14000 certification is also a sign of improving corporate image and market competitiveness

in a word, the environmental labeling system and the international environmental management standards - ISO 14000 series, like the international quality management standards ISO 9000 series, are mandatory international standards, which will play an increasingly important role in the future international trade and effectively promote human beings to realize the protection of earth resources and human settlements

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